Court cases

Utah v. Strieff (2016) [link] (Evidence seized by means of a lawful arrest need not be suppressed at trial even though the warrant that was the basis for the arrest was discovered during an unlawful investigatory stop)

DiversityInc June 2016 Supreme Court Ruling Allows Police to Racially Profile, says Justice Sotomayor

Floyd v. City of New York. 959 F. Supp. 2d 540 (S.D.N.Y. 2013) [pdf]

Slate August 2013 The Worst of Stop-and-Frisk Is Over. But Why Didn’t the NYPD End the Racist Policy Itself?

NY Times August 2013 Judge Rejects New York’s Stop-and-Frisk Policy

NY Daily News May 2013 The great stop-and-frisk fraud

The New Yorker August 2013 The statistical Debate Behind the Stop-and-Frisk Verdict

Alexander v. Sandoval (2001) [link]

Atwater v. City of Lago Vista (2001) [link] (Fourth Amendment does not forbid a warrantless arrest for a minor criminal offense, such as a misdemeanor seatbelt violation punishable only by a fine)

Whren v. United States (1996) [link] (As long as officers have a reasonable cause to believe that a traffic violation occurred, they may stop any vehicle, even as a pretext and regardless of what other motivations they had for stopping the vehicle)

McCleskey v.Kemp (1987) [link] (Since McCleskey could not prove that purposeful discrimination against him existed in the particular trial, there was no constitutional violation, despite the existence of statistical evidence establishing a pattern of racial disparities in Georgia sentencing decisions in capital cases)

Batson v. Kentuky (1985) [link] (The prosecutor’s use of peremptory challenges to exclude blacks from the jury violated Batson’s rights to a fair trial and to equal protection)

City of Los Angeles v. Lyons (1983) [link]

United States v. Brignoni-Ponce (1975) [link] (Fourth Amendment required there to be reasonable suspicion for border patrol agents to stop a vehicle and question its occupants)

Terry v. Ohio (1968) [link]

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